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Ghana Africa  

flag of Ghana Africa

Background:
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and a ban on political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President John ATTA-MILLS in a free and fair election, succeeded him.
 
People:
Population:  22,409,572
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
 

map of Ghana West Africa

Age structure:  0-14 years: 38.8% (male 4,395,744/female 4,288,720)
                        15-64 years: 57.7% (male 6,450,828/female 6,483,781)
                        65 years and over: 3.5% (male 371,428/female 419,071) (2006 est.)
 
Median age:  total: 19.9 years
                      male: 19.7 years
                      female: 20.1 years (2006 est.)
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  3.1% (2003 est.)
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  350,000 (2003 est.)
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:  30,000 (2003 est.)
 
Major infectious diseases:  degree of risk: very high
                                           food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
                                           vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
                                           water contact disease: schistosomiasis
                                           respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)
 
Ethnic groups:  African 98.5% (includes Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
 
Religions:  Christian 63%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 21%
 
Geography:
Location:  Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
 
Area:  total: 239,460 sq km
           land: 230,940 sq km
           water: 8,520 sq km
 
Area - Comparitive:  slightly smaller than Oregon
 
Climate:  tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
 
Natural Resources:  gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
 
Land Use:  Arable Land:  17.54%
                  permanent crops: 9.22%
                  other: 73.24% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:  310 sq km (2003)
 
Natural hazards:  dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
 
Environment - current issues:  recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
 
Environment - international agreements:  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
Geography - note:  Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
 
 
Sources:
  World Fact Book, https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/gh.html
 

 

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